Monday, August 18, 2014

Many Voices Needed

Beware of Cheerleaders bearing Propaganda

Each person is a sovereign entity and free to gather their own facts, form their own opinions and share these as they see fit.  Most of my friends exercise these rights.  We share our facts and opinions frequently and it helps us add to our own world-view.  We are encouraged to see our own thoughts in others’ statements.  Rush Limbaugh was motivated to share his facts and opinions and found out just how many people felt the same way and were grateful for his doing this. He had noticed that the “free press” was dead, but needed to be resurrected.

The Death of the Free Press

World War II ushered in the need for secrecy and allowed the proliferation of propaganda designed to focus all citizens on winning this war.  Our free press was yet another casualty of this war. The press was used to not printing anything but propaganda and so it continued to print propaganda. But this time the propaganda was designed to promote paying off the war debt, promote consumerism and praise technological advances.  A large segment of the population was setting up households and there were homes and appliances to sell.  We were not devastated by the war and were the only large country ready to do business. The media supported the party line.  It set up the 1950s to create a media controlled population and television had arrived.

Entertainment was very clean prior to the 1960s.  If you watch most movies and TV shows made in the 1940s and 1950s, you will notice virtually no pornography or bad language. Churches flourished.


The 1960s saw a sea-change in attitudes and a blitzkrieg of government actions. After the 1962 Vatican Council, Catholic priests and nuns left in droves. The very affordable hospitals and schools run by these religious orders began to disappear and get sold off to profiteers.  In 1962 the Supreme Court decided school prayer was unconstitutional. The introduction of the birth control pill in 1964 heralded a shift to racier entertainment. It was called the “Popular Culture”.  In 1964 government created the Civil Rights Act and Medicare and began subsidizing health care and prices rose.  A few of us questioned new government subsidies, but all players had been briefed and the propaganda ruled. The power of legal bribery was born. In 1965 Affirmative Action was established by Executive Order. The women’s movement in the 1960s was the propaganda campaign to cover the need for all women to go to work in the 1970s.

By the 1970s physicians were agreeing that the government would need to fund more health care to enable hospitals to afford the new expensive equipment being developed.  Everybody got bribed to sign up to the propaganda and everybody got something.  In 1973 abortion became legal in the Roe v Wade Supreme Court decision.

In the 1980s, conservative talk radio began to expose those government actions not fairly or accurately covered by the media. By the 1990s, email became wide-spread along with home computers and websites began to join talk radio. By the 2000s, blogs began to appear along with a myriad of websites offering political commentary.  Since 2008, these voices have grown to hundreds of websites and blogs making it difficult for the media to cover up damaging government actions

Over 100 years of government actions have gradually turned the U.S. economy on its head from what it was before unconstitutional federal initiatives created federal lands, the Federal Reserve and other violations of the U.S. Constitution and the 10th Amendment, the other Amendments and the Bill of Rights.  The unintended consequences have had damaging effects on our Constitution and our economic sustainability.

The Awakening of the Free Press

All of these voices, websites, blogs, books, movies and magazines are engaged in attempting to reverse a blitzkrieg of government attacks and all are needed.  You will see each of them pick out a target and go after it.  You will see them work in coalitions locally and nationally. The Wall Street Journal, Investor’s Business Daily and other media outlets have begun to join in pointing out government abuses. Fox News and Fox Business News are leading the TV stations to do the same.  Glenn Beck has his own network.

There are powerful, well-funded forces who want the U.S. to dissolve. Goals initiated by the American Communist Party in 1920 and 1963 have been accomplished.  Marxists infiltrated charitable foundations, universities, unions, environmental groups, media and political parties and have organized with UN funded non-profits to construct the mousetrap we now find ourselves in. They will use all means necessary to ensure we don’t reverse their progress. They are Progressives and that’s what they do.

Our resistance requires an awakening of the voters. There are still too many uninformed voters who pay little attention to our weak economic fundamentals and are particularly susceptible to left-wing propaganda.  These are the folks we need to reach.  We need to take our messages to the streets and throughout the neighborhoods.

Norb Leahy, Dunwoody GA Tea Party Leader



Cost Reductions Needed

Lower the Cost of Education, Health Care and Government
The U.S. Media Promotes Distraction
The print media doesn’t lay out the big picture or the real economic dynamics that are creating our steady economic decline.  They do report incidents hinting to this decline like individual closures of institutions and businesses and leave it to the reader to put the pieces together.  Some would say that most Americans aren’t smart enough or interested enough to pay attention to our economic decline.  Some would say that the media has become the cheerleader for the myth that the economy is improving, so consumers will keep spending.  Some say that the media are not allowed to speak the truth.
The Elephant in the Living Room
The problem with the U.S. Federal government is overspending due to unconstitutional overreach.  The U.S. government is insolvent.  It’s currently spending is about twice as much as its income and has been doing that since 2008. This overspending is being used to attack us and our economy through UN Agenda 21 implementation.
Supply & Demand
The problem with overpriced segments of our economy is related to supply and demand.  As prices increase, demand decreases.  Colleges and hospitals are closing because the price has killed the demand.  Most of this is now due to Obamacare and a bubble of federal grants for colleges to become leftist propaganda agencies.  These institutions grew when they assumed that they would have an ever-increasing cash flow from government.  College students can no longer “work their way through college”.  If they take out student loans, they are faced with paying off a $40,000 debt upon graduation.  Upon graduating, most cannot find jobs that allow them to be self-supporting, much less able to pay off their student loans.
80% of American consumers are living paycheck to paycheck.  Household income continues to decline.  When household income doesn’t increase at the same rate as housing prices, housing demand declines and prices recede. If interest rates rise, housing prices recede. 
The cost of Education, Healthcare and Government has exceeded the price demand curve and need cost reductions to re-attract consumers. 
The student population that is able to afford attending an expensive 4 year college, living on campus is on the decline.  An increasing number of students will show up at community colleges, commute from home and take more practical, job-related courses at cheaper community colleges.
Students need to boycott expensive education.  There is so much propaganda fed in college classrooms, students should revolt.
Health Care
Hospital costs at $10,000 per day our insurers are paying are clearly 4 times higher than any supply/demand curve would support.  We see these bills loaded with unbelievable costs for in-hospital tests and “observation”.   It appears this amount of overcharge comes from regulations, the need for legal boilerplate to defend malpractice suits, the need to promote the myth that these treatments and tests are worth the cost (if it is paid by insurance), decades of money pouring in and bad habits, overdesigning “cost is no object” treatment plans. We need to report these overcharges to our insurance providers and anybody who will listen.  This won’t change until we start to refuse treatment because of cost, even though it’s covered by insurance.  It requires a consumer revolt.
Government costs have doubled due to the doubling of federal spending.  Vendors simply charge double in response to cities, counties and states’ access to free, printed and borrowed money from the Fed.  Taxpayers need to vote No on every ballot initiative and need to insist that their vote is required for all bonds, government borrowing or spending increases. Turning this around requires a taxpayer revolt.
Action Needed
Consumers can impact the big global companies who support our current economic decline.  It will take some work on the part of consumers, but we need to vet all possible competitors.  I would like to find a non-union phone company, electric company, natural gas company, automobile manufacturer, building contractor, local food source, school and government.
Norb Leahy, Dunwoody GA Tea Party Leader

Common Core Update

Common Core compliant Testing and a Federal Jobs bureaucracy follow on the heels of State confusion over the Standards implementation.  This is a blitzkrieg against education.
National Governor’s Association (NGO) is the primary UN Agenda 21 implementation non-profit corporation in charge of Education (Common Core) and now has a plan to involve the DOE, HHS, DOL and “select” industries to co-opt the States to create a federal driven jobs readiness boondoggle. 
Like ICLEI, the National Governor’s Association is a private non-profit set up and funded to “serve” our Governors and is listed as a non-governmental organization.
This NGO and federal agencies are spending your printed and borrowed tax dollars to create a make-believe, centrally planned, Marxist structure to pretend to align all education and job training and a one-size-fits-all set of make-believe jobs for our make-believe shovel-ready unemployed students.  These folks have no clue how the private sector free market operates and they don’t want to know. They all live in a big government national socialist bubble.  Their “industry partners” survive on Federal Reserve largess and competition-mitigating legislation and routinely contribute staff to participate in these masquerades.
Letter from DOE, HHS, DOL
Common Core started with vague standards, but quickly added complete control of curriculum, text books, invasive data collection and college entrance testing control to continue the parade of “dumbing-down”, education destroying federal programs we have suffered for decades. Now they want to construct jobs lists to connect with their disastrous education control plan. 
The pattern for implementation is clear.  It is similar to the tactics use to pass and keep Obamacare alive with extortion, bribery, threats, fraud, lies and well-funded tenacity.  
DOE involvement was predictable.  They needed to pile up the sandbags to protect Common Core from nullification by the States. The addition of HHS confirms that those who disagree may be diagnosed by untrained “social workers” as unfit to keep your children.  The DOL is just lonely and looking for something relevant to do.
Their goals clearly include sabotaging all math education to ensure that students won’t learn how to do math.  It also includes revisionist history and behavior modification to encourage students to be big government environmentalist supporters.  Globalist propaganda is reinforced by controlling the college entrance tests.  This is yet another Bolshevik moment comrades, as we move through National Socialism to global communism.
Norb Leahy, Dunwoody GA Tea Party Leader

Georgia Legislation Planning Update 2015

Rein in government abuse of voters

The Georgia Legislature continues to be packed with “Chamber of Commerce Republicans”.  They do a good job for commercial real estate developers and contractors using federal grant money for mal-investments like even more shopping venues at a time when demand is dropping due to less disposable income for consumers. 

They do a good job for municipalities with legislation that enables city councils and county commissions to continue to borrow and spend and give away tax holidays without voter approval and impose unnecessary permits, fees and fines.  The State allows Agenda 21 implementation through regional commissions.  They do nothing to protect citizens from federal and local government abuses.

There are several initiatives that would benefit regular voters.  These are populist moves that would rein in laws that cut voters out of the decision-making process and allow elected officials to ignore voter wishes. Some of these laws need to be repealed.

Georgians need well maintained roads, sufficient water supplies, affordable electricity, stronger property rights, stronger voter control, jobs, protection from unconstitutional federal laws and regulations, protection from local government abuse and protection from future inflation caused by wasteful government spending.  

Georgia taxpayers do not need to subsidize commercial development, public transit, new urban planning, on-street bike lanes, trollies, more parks, multiuse trails, wildlife preserves, unelected governance or matching tax dollars for Obama squander-grants.

Georgia taxpayers have been plagued by UN Agenda 21 implementation pushed by the Regions and the ICLEI trained consultants dictating costly cookie-cutter Master Plans and Land-Use Zoning Plans. City Managers and consultants run the cities. City Council Reps operate by “group think”. County government is insular with a few exceptions. Local government spends twice as much as it should and nobody is preventing this waste.

We ask that you consider the following:

End Government Abuse

Pass Georgia Sovereignty Laws to protect Georgia citizens from unconstitutional federal laws and regulations and protect property owners from federal seizure, interference and abuse.  Pass Georgia Property Rights Laws that protect property owners from government abuse at all levels.

Ban all Agenda 21 implementation in Georgia. Alabama did this already. It’s time to get ready to reject federal bribery grants aimed to make us squander tax money on unnecessary, stupid things.  It’s time to stop abusive federal agencies at the Georgia border.

Repeal Regionalism: Repeal HB 1216 that created regional commissions for “economic development”.  Repeal HB 277 that allows Regional sales tax votes violating “home rule”. 

Stop “conservation easements”. Provide property owners with ways to reduce excessive easements.  Require local governments to pay “fair value” for easement taking. Enact strict private property rights.

Nullify Obamacare totally to end the job-killing 30 hour rule and allow healthcare providers to dump costly and unnecessary regulations and lower costs.

Remove Common Core from Georgia and claim that federal involvement in education is unconstitutional.

Cancel Georgia’s application to the Article V Convention of States.  It’s too dangerous to do this with the bad guys in charge.

Free Up Jobs

Discourage further job-killing illegal immigration by removing all taxpayer supported benefit eligibility for illegals in Georgia. Remove eligibility for all tax funded benefits from illegal aliens including drivers’ licenses, public schooling, medical care, in-state tuition and discrimination rules. Missouri did this and illegals moved out-of-state.

Discourage excessive job-killing legal immigration. We need to allow our high unemployment to subside.  Ensure that Georgia farmers have an efficient, successful “guest worker” plan, remove “guest worker” work permit status from all other occupations.

Increase employment of citizens by restricting legal and illegal immigration

Ensure Basic Needs

Ensure that reservoirs are built and water supplies are ample for homes and farms.

Keep Energy Prices Low: Nullify EPA Carbon Rules. The State can protect electric power consumers from the global warming hoax by refusing to comply with unconstitutional federal regulations.

End Slush Funds

Restrict all “economic development” funds and activities to remove subsidies for commercial development. Economic development should be focused on returning manufacturing to Georgia.

Limit property tax increases to 3% per year to avoid large increases like those experienced by Hall County in 2014. Ensure that property appraisals are honest and conservative and reflect the coming lack of first-time buyers. Protect taxpayers from speculator-driven housing bubbles.

Limit government borrowing power from 10% of the tax registry to 100% of the government entities’ assets.

Require voter approval for all Bonds that all government entities wish to sell. The legal trickery used by Cobb to approve $400 million in Bonds for the Braves Stadium is a travesty.

Enact Reform

Restrict campaign contributions to be made by registered voters and only for candidates who would appear on their ballot. Reduce special interest influence in handling Bills through the legislative process.

Norb Leahy, Dunwoody GA Tea Party Leader

Posted on NTL Conservative Blog ( July 9, 2014, Revised August 18, 2014

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Lessons from Jefferson County

Critical Infrastructure

The top potential dangers voters face with local government is its tendency to ignore basic infrastructure.  They do this at their peril and at our expense and they do it all sloppily. If not maintained, water treatment systems, roads and bridges end up costing a lot more to repair. They also overuse Bonds, ensuring that everything costs double. They need to spend less on fluff and boilerplate and pay more attention to these priorities.


Sewers and Bonds

Jefferson County Alabama spent $3.3 billion on their sanitary sewer system due to a series of events.  The EPA took charge of this sanitary sewer system and mandated that the county build a new one. The design was over-the-top and the costs were outrageous.  Variable-Rate Bonds turned into an instrument of destruction when interest rates went up in 2004 and the County got caught with a big interest rate increase on the Bonds.  The County declared bankruptcy. The county doubled water bills and outlawed all septic tanks to force all county residents on to the new sewer system.   Property values plummeted.  The average monthly household sewer bill in 1992 was $9.78, is currently $67.56 and is projected to be $104.12 by 2020. See below for a full update:


Norb Leahy, Dunwoody GA Tea Party Leader


Jefferson County sewer construction scandal

The Jefferson County sewer construction scandal encompasses $3.3 billion spent on repairs, upgrades and expansions of the Jefferson County sewer system, made in part to comply with a 1996 consent decree drafted to ensure future compliance with the federal Clean Water Act. A 2003 study found that much of the money was misspent, costing rate payers hundreds of millions of dollars in unnecessary expenditures. Due to the project's enormous costs, county-wide sewer rates have increased markedly, from among the lowest in the country to the highest, and are projected to continue indefinitely in order to service outstanding debts.

Furthermore, several county officials have been prosecuted for corruption in contracts related to sewer projects, and a series of increasingly-complicated interest rate swaps carried out by the County in efforts to reduce overall debt service have backfired, causing the filing of the largest municipal bankruptcy in U. S. history.

In 1993 attorney Bart Slawson filed a lawsuit (Kipp, v. Jefferson County) against the county on behalf of residents near the Cahaba River alleging that the county's sewer system was spilling and overflowing during heavy rains, allowing large amounts of untreated wastewater to enter the Cahaba River, a source of drinking water for much of the region (the Cahaba River Society joined the suit after it was filed). The plaintiffs documented over 4,000 specific violations, which prompted a the United States Department of Justice to investigate and follow suit with United States v. Jefferson County, Alabama, Jefferson County Commission, and the State of Alabama.

The county settled both lawsuits in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama by signing a consent decree in December 1996. The county agreed to make the improvements necessary to satisfy the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the system complied with the federal Clean Water Act. Other terms of the agreement required the county to spend $30 million for the establishment of protective greenways to improve water quality in the Cahaba and Black Warrior River systems and to pay a civil penalty of $750,000. Altogether, the cost of complying with the decree was estimated to be $1.2 billion

Though major construction is complete as of 2008, the EPA still has scores of documented infractions which need to be addressed before they can certify full compliance with the consent decree. On April 18, 2008 District Court Judge J. Foy Guin, Jr certified that the county had met the requirements for the smallest of nine affected systems, affecting the Warrior River.

Super sewer

While the lawsuit against the system was progressing, planners from the Jefferson County Department of Environmental Services, headed by Jack Swann, were studying the merits of various expansion projects not specifically required by the consent decree. They defended the expansions as needed for economic development and to increase the number of ratepayers who would share the costs. Swann said the county would count all projects to improve the performance of the system as "court-ordered". Activists from the Cahaba River Society argued that less than half of the County's expenditures were going toward correction of the faults identified in the lawsuit.

The largest single project was an $84 million plan to provide new sewer service to the Upper Cahaba Watershed around Cahaba Heights and parts of Mountain Brook. The "Cahaba Trunk Sewer", popularly dubbed the "super sewer" when it was first discussed in 1992, would entail construction of a major trunk line from Grants Mill Road to the Cahaba River Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hoover. As planned, the new trunk sewer line would cross underneath the river a dozen or more times along its route. Critics of the plan immediately challenged not only the risky proposition of tunneling under the Cahaba River, but also the need for such an enormous project which could only encourage overdevelopment of the environmentally-sensitive watershed area. Following the consent decree the project was shelved until it was quietly resumed in 1999 with work in the Altadena Valley.

Swann and the Jefferson County Commission proceeded with construction, however, and saw projected costs swell to over $140 million. In late 2000 the revived project came to public attention when the County began buying rights of way needed near U. S. Highway 280. Construction was halted in July 2002 when the Birmingham Water Works Board, which owns easements along the river, asked for new risk-assessments. Engineers found less solid rock under the riverbed than they had expected. Meanwhile public outcry led the Jefferson County Commission to initiate more public hearings on the plan. Swann protested that the delays were costing ratepayers $15,000 per day and that halting the project would cost another $6.5 million. The Health Department challenged the planners' interpretation of their report on septic failures and called for a comprehensive land-use plan to determine actual needs and an independent risk assessment for the tunnel scheme.

2003 report

After a series of reports in the Birmingham News brought public outcry, the Jefferson County Commission hired BE&K engineering to review the sewer construction program and report its findings. The result, presented in October 2003, showed numerous serious shortcomings in management of the program as well as questionable decisions made by county officials.

Specific findings included:

  1. No actual plan or strategy was ever drafted for how to prioritize projects, resulting in wasteful expenditures on projects with little return. (such as the super sewer)
  2. None of the project's managers or consultants had experience with projects of similar scope.
  3. The accounting systems used by the environmental services department and the finance department were different, allowing as much as $100 million in "accounting discrepancies" to accrue.
  4. Unusual agreements with consultants and contractors with little protection for public funds in case of default or cancellation.
    The report recommended that the county hire a project manager to oversee the completion of the sewer upgrades and to offset fast-climbing sewer rates by increasing property taxes and development fees.
    In the Summer of 2005 a multi-count indictment naming 21 defendants was filed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in connection with alleged bribery, conspiracy and obstruction of justice. As of April 2008 fifteen individuals have been convicted of bribery.
  1. Chris McNair (Jefferson County Commission), convicted December 2006, pleaded guilty during appeal in February 2007, sentenced to 5 years imprisonment in June 2007, but later freed after he was granted a new trial.
  2. Gary White (Jefferson County Commission), convicted on 9 counts, but granted a new trial
  3. Mary Buckelew (Jefferson County Commission), agreed to plead guilty to obstruction of justice in exchange for cooperation with investigators.
  4. Jack Swann, (Director of Environmental Services), sentenced to 102 months imprisonment and $350,000 in restitution to the County. Currently free on appeal.
  5. Harry T. Chandler (Assistant Director of Environmental Services), sentenced to 2 years probation and a $33,000 fine
  6. Ronald Wilson (Chief Engineer for Environmental Services), sentenced to 13 months imprisonment and a fine of $250,000. Released February 2008.
  7. Clarence Barber, former County Maintenance Chief, sentenced to 5 months imprisonment. Scheduled for release in June 2008.
  8. Larry Creel, sentenced to probation.
  1. Sohan Singh (U. S. Infrastructure), sentenced to 78 months imprisonment, currently free on appeal.
  2. Ed Key (U. S. Infrastructure), currently free on appeal.
  3. U. S. Infrastructure, fined $6.7 million and $426,254 in restitution
  4. Civil Engineering Design Services (owned by Robert Wilson), fined $80,000
  5. Pat Dougherty, (Dougherty Engineering), sentenced to 51 months imprisonment and $4 million in fines and restitution
  6. Dougherty Engineering, fined $3.8 million
  7. Bobby Rast (Rast Construction), sentenced to 51 months imprisonment and a $2.5 million fine, currently free on appeal.
  8. Danny Rast (Rast Construction), sentenced to 41 months imprisonment and a $1 million fine, currently free on appeal.
  9. Rast Construction, fined $1.7 million
  10. William Dawson (Dawson Engineering), sentenced to 4 months imprisonment and $35,000 in fines, released Fall 2007
  11. Grady Pugh, Jr (Roland Pugh Construction), sentenced to 5 months imprisonment and a $2 million fine. Released in October 2007.
  12. Roland Pugh (Roland Pugh Construction), sentenced to 45 months imprisonment and $250,000 in fines, currently free on appeal.
  13. Eddie Yessick, sentenced to 2 years imprisonment to begin June 18, 2008.
Most of the sewer work was contracted with bond money to be repaid by increased sewer rates. As expenses have mounted, the county's schedule for increasing rates has had to follow suit. The county's authority to set rates is established by the Alabama Constitution. In case of delinquency, the County can attach a lien to the properties served.
In 1997 the Commission adopted an ordinance which would automatically increase rates each January. The amount of the yearly increase would be set by the County finance director in order to meet rate covenants which were made with bond issuers to hold down interest rates. In addition to the yearly increase, the Commission adopted two mid-year increases (March 1, 1999 and April 1, 2001). Twice the commission reduced the finance director's proposed January increase (2004 and 2005).
Average monthly residential sewer bills in Jefferson County are based on typical usage of 10000 cubit feet of water per household minus a 15% credit for water not returned to the sewer :
  1. 1992: $9.78 ($1.15/ccf)
  2. 1993: $11.48 ($1.35/ccf)
  3. 1994: $12.24 ($1.44/ccf)
  4. 1995: $13.43 ($1.58/ccf)
  5. 1996: $14.71 ($1.73/ccf)
  6. 1997: $15.13 ($1.78/ccf)
  7. 1998: $15.98 ($1.88/ccf)
  8. 1999: $18.70 ($2.20/ccf)
  9. 2000: $21.08 ($2.48/ccf)
  10. 2001: $25.85 ($3.04/ccf)
  11. 2002: $30.01 ($3.53/ccf)
  12. 2003: $35.31 ($4.15/ccf)
  13. 2004: $38.84 ($4.57/ccf)
  14. 2005: $50.41 ($5.93/ccf)
  15. 2006: $55.42 ($6.52/ccf)
  16. 2007: $58.40 ($6.87/ccf)
  17. 2008: $62.90 ($7.40/ccf)
    A pair of "special masters" appointed by District Court Judge David Proctor concluded that sewer rates would have to be increased by 400% to meet 2009 debt obligations. Among their recommendations to the county was raising rates by as much as 25% per year and eliminating the 15% credit for water not returned to the sewer. If imposed, Jefferson County's sewer rates would quickly become the highest in the nation.
Rather than raise rates as recommended, the county defaulted on payments while seeking other means of reducing its indebtedness. In a suit filed by the Bank of New

York Mellon, trustee over much of the system's obligations, Circuit Court Judge Albert Johnson appointed New Jersey Water Works executive John S. Young as receiver, granting him power to administer, operate and protect the system -- including the power to raise rates. Young's recommendations, made in Spring 2011, included raising sewer rates by as much as 25% in the first year, with additional increases dependent upon other measures taken to reduce the county's indebtedness.

In September 2011 the county agreed on a tentative plan which would cap future rate increases at 8.2% per year for three years, and 3.25% per year after that. When negotiations with creditors faltered in November, the county declared bankruptcy, putting control of the sewer system into the hands of Judge Thomas Bennett.

A deal with a majority of creditors was announced in June 2013. Under that agreement, sewer rates would go up 7.41% per year for four years, and then could be raised up to 3.94% per year thereafter, not counting future bond issues for additional capital projects, regulatory compliance and/or inflation. By that reckoning, rates could be expected to increase as indicated:

  1. 2013: $62.90 ($7.40/ccf)
  2. 2014: $67.56 ($7.95/ccf)
  3. 2015: $72.57 ($8.54/ccf)
  4. 2016: $77.95 ($9.17/ccf)
  5. 2017: $92.73 ($9.85/ccf)
  6. 2018: $96.38 ($10.24/ccf)
  7. 2019: $100.17 ($10.64/ccf)
  8. 2020: $104.12 ($11.06/ccf)


  1. Rosen, Dorah (1993) "Sewercide". Fun & Stuff
  2. Howell, Vickii (September 24, 2000) "Jeffco sewer rates rising to finance system repairs." The Birmingham News
  3. Blackledge, Brett J. and Vickii Howell (June 10, 2001) "Third of sewer costs not ordered by court." The Birmingham News
  4. Bouma, Katherine (August 1, 2002) "Report criticizes supersewer research." The Birmingham News
  5. Crook, McDowell (August 10, 2002) "Unearthing truth on sewers: Meeting allows officials to explain need for project." Birmingham Post-Herald
  6. Blackledge, Brett J. (September 16, 2003) "Report points to misspent millions management cited; taxpayers may see rates rise till 2011". The Birmingham News
  7. Torres, Ailene (July 14, 2005) "Did corruption drive up debt?" Birmingham Post-Herald
  8. Geiss, Chucj (July 28, 2005) "Naked Birmingham: Publisher's Notebook." Black & White
  9. Bouma, Katherine (January 19, 2008) "EPA fines Jefferson County for sewage overflows, refuses to certify expansion as complete." The Birmingham News
  10. Hansen, Jeff (March 9, 2008) "Jefferson County, Alabama sewer debt grew into crisis." The Birmingham News
  11. Hansen, Jeff and Eric Velasco (March 23, 2008) "Jefferson County sewer debt crisis contained key players." The Birmingham News
  12. Archibald, John (April 17, 2008) "Rats leave sewer, but not streets." The Birmingham News
  13. Wright, Barnett (April 5, 2009) "Special masters ordered to review the Jefferson County, Alabama sewer system have filed a $797,224 bill." The Birmingham News
  14. Wright, Barnett (September 22, 2010) "Judge appoints John S. Young receiver over Jefferson County sewer system." The Birmingham News
  15. Dickinson, Melinda and Matthew Bigg (September 16, 2011) "Alabama county backs deal to settle $3.14 billion debt." Reuters.
  16. Walsh, Mary Williams (June 4, 2013) "A County in Alabama Strikes a Bankruptcy Deal." The New York Times DealB%k blog